The 2020-2023 La Niña phenomenon has been the longest in the last 66 years, with a duration of 34 months. If it continues into April, as expected, it will be the longest in the last 120 years. La Niña is an atmospheric phenomenon that is expressed in a drop in the temperature of the sea surface. It usually lasts from nine months to three years.
Among others, La Niña has had an impact on agricultural production in Ecuador, because among its effects are droughts on the coast. In the case of bananas, close to 80% of the drop in export volume in 2022 was due to the impact of La Niña, explains Richard Salazar, executive director of the Banana Marketing and Export Association. Last year, banana and plantain exports fell 5.8% in volume and also 6.3% in dollar value, according to the ECB.
Bananas develop properly in temperatures ranging from 25°C to 35°C, but due to La Niña there were areas where it reached 18°C.